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ABM Mushroom

Agaricus Blazei Murill in treatment of cancer.

Although the first reports of this mushroom date from the forties, only after its discovery in Brazil, in 1965, l – for Mr. Furumoto, a Japanese farmer from Piedade/SP -, a larger interest of the scientific community was aroused, mainly in Japan (country that received the first samples), United States and China. Since then, several researches have been accomplished, demonstrating the qualities and benefits of Agaricus.

In Brazil, the production of Agaricus blazei in commercial scalei just begun in 1989, when the Iwade Laboratory of Japan, signed a cultivation contract with SB Cristal (Kazumasa Abe). Finally, more than 20 years after, the mushroom was back to its homeland.

Considering the nutricional and physiologic importance of the Agaricus mushrooms, Kazumasa Abe requested in 1998, through National Biosciences and Human Technology Institute from the Industrial Technology Agency of the Ministry of International and Industrial Trade of Japan, the patenting of Agaricus blazei BM8, in the Budapeste Agreement about the International Recognition of Micrrorganism Deposit, with the number FERM BP-6480.

Agaricus in natura contains 85 to 87% of water. After the dehydration, it is rich in proteins and carbohydrates and it contains considerable amounts of vitamins – B1, B2, B3 and ergosterol, that it is transformed in D2 vitamin after exhibition to light and cooking -, lipeds (represented mainly by poli-insaturated greasy acids), minerals – potassium (about 2%), phosphorous, magnesium, calcium, sodium, copper, zinc, iron and molibdenium.

In chemical composition, besides the mentioned nutrients, we can found glycoproteins, steroids and polysaccharides complexes with proteins that, when analyzed in laboratory cavies, present properties that potentialize the immune system, the homeostasys and improve the physical conditions of the organism, besides producing pronounced antitumor activity.

Agaricus originates from Piedade, which is located in the suburbs of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The climatic conditions in Piedade include temperatures that soar to 35º during the day and dip to between 20º and 25º at night, with a humidity that averages 80 %. The place also experiences regular squall toward evening. Agaricus thrives only under these conditions, suggesting that its survival is significantly affected by these external conditions.

Some 30 years ago, a US researcher noted that the rate of occurrence of adult diseases in the Piedade region is extremely low, and found that it was because of the Agaricus that was a part of the regular diet of the inhabitants of this area.

Around the same time, Agaricus was introduced to Japan. Dr. Shoji Shibata, who at the time was a professor in the Pharmacological Department of Tokyo niversity, and Dr. Tetuo Ikegawa of the National Cancer Center, jointly researched the pharmacological effects of Agaricus. The research results were released at the general convention of the Japan Pharmacological Association and the Japan Cancer Association. The experience with mice verified that the polysaccharide Beta-glucan contained in Agaricus significantly activated the immune system.

As Agaricus grows only in certain conditions, its production in Brazil remained unstable. Moreover, Agaricus was mostly consumed locally, and importing it into Japan was extremely difficult. Despite efforts in Japan over many years to cultivate Agaricus under artificial conditions, it proved extremely difficult, and failed to guarantee a stable production output. However, in 1992, kyowa Engineering achieved a world first when it successfully mass-produced Agaricus by taking advantage of the company’s biotechnological expertise. Consequently, the company was able to provide a stable supply of Agaricus to the health food market.

Shiitake

Shiitake Mushroom Nutrition

Shiitake Mushroom Nutrition
By Nicole Wolverton

Shiitake mushrooms, a variety of Japanese mushroom, are available throughout the United States in grocery stores and specialty shops. The Mushroom Growers’ Newsletter reports that shiitake mushrooms are the second most produced mushroom worldwide, enjoying a growing popularity. This mushroom finds use in a variety of recipes, known for their rich, smoky flavor.

Calories

A 1-cup serving of shiitake mushrooms contains 81.2 calories. This represents 4 percent of the calories you may include in your meal plan each day, based on a 2,000-calorie diet. While you can eat these mushrooms on their own, it’s more common for them to be a part of a dish.

Macronutrients

The majority of calories in shiitake mushrooms come from carbohydrates — a 1-cup serving contains 20.9g. The carbohydrates in your diet primarily serve as energy, after your body converts them to glucose. This portion of shiitake mushrooms also provides you with 2.3g of protein and 0.3g of fat.
Vitamins

Shiitake mushrooms serve as a rich source of B vitamins. One cup contains 52.1 percent of the daily recommended value of vitamin B-5, also known as pantothenic acid. This vitamin may play a role in treating acne, alcoholism, asthma, autism, heart failure, depression and convulsions, among other conditions. A 1-cup serving of shiitake mushrooms also provides 24.5 percent of the vitamin B-2 you need each day, 10.9 percent of vitamin B-3 and 11.5 percent of vitamin B-6.
Minerals

Selenium, an essential mineral for your body’s function, is found in abundance in shiitake mushrooms. A 1-cup serving has 51.4 percent of the selenium you need daily. This mineral helps your body manufacture proteins that prevent cell damage, and it may decrease your risk of developing some types of cancer. One cup of shiitake mushrooms also contains 3.5 percent of the daily recommended value of iron, a mineral your body uses to make blood cells.

Benefits

Research published in the November 2010 issue of “The Journal of Nutrition” notes that shiitake mushrooms reduced arthritis pain in mice; human studies are needed to determine if shiitake mushrooms will benefit humans in the same way. The American Cancer Society also notes that shiitake mushrooms may influence the immune system, which may prevent cancer and AIDS from developing or getting worse. These mushrooms may also lower your cholesterol. Research is needed to confirm these claims.

References

CalorieLab: Mushrooms, Shiitake, Cooked, Without Salt
The Mushroom Growers’ Newsletter: A Small-Scale Agriculture Alternative: Shiitake Mushrooms
MedlinePlus: Carbohydrates
MedlinePlus: Pantothenic Acid
MedlinePlus: Selenium in Diet
MedlinePlus: Iron in Diet


Facts about Agaricus Blazei Murill

The mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill was discovered in Piedade, state of São Paulo, Brazil, and sent to Japan to be studied for its medicinal properties. Studies in guinea pigs revealed antitumor properties, triggering Japanese importation of Agaricus blazei Murill from Brazil. Because of its high price on the international market, many companies and rural growers produce Agaricus blazei Murill as alternative crop to increase income, but because interest in this mushroom occurred suddenly there has not been enough time for the scientific community to investigate it and, technology used for its cultivation is still based on empirical rules. There are also some contradicting data regarding the classification of this mushroom, and its antitumor properties still need to be confirmed in humans.

From the early days of civilization, man has used fungi for the production of fermented foods and beverages, or directly as food. In Ancient Egypt, fermentation was considered a gift from the god Osiris, while ancient Romans attributed the emergence of mushrooms and truffles to lightening bolts cast to the earth by Jupiter (Alexopoulos et al., 1996).

For centuries, Asians have attributed curative properties to some mushrooms. Reports from China since about 500 BC, on the medicinal properties of Ganoderma lucidum (known in China as reishi) extracts, especially its anti-cancer properties, have been passed on generation to generation (Mizuno et al., 1995a; 1995c), and since the Ming dynasty (1620 AD), there have been reports on the medicinal properties of Lentinula edodes (shiitake) mushrooms, considered an elixir of life and possessing the ability to enhance `vital energy’ and cure colds (Mizuno, 1995a).

In the late Twentieth Century, researchers in Japan demonstrated the antitumor effects of a Brazilian mushroom, identified as Agaricus blazei Murill, which became subject of studies by several research groups (Kawagishi et al., 1988; 1989; Osaki et al., 1

doctor oz mushroom

Dr. Oz Cordyceps Mushroom – Caterpillar Mushroom

Dr. Oz Cordyceps for Fatigue

Dr. Oz on today’s live show talked about the use of Cordyceps to fight fatigue. Now Cordyceps is something that has been around in the sports nutrition community for quite some time. It’s a supplement used by a lot of runners actually. It allows them to breathe better and become less tired during their running.
So What is Dr. Oz’s Cordyceps Mushroom?

Cordyceps, one of the better-known traditional Chinese medicines, consists of the dried fungus Cordyceps sinensis growing on the larva of the caterpillar. It is commonly used in China for the replenishment of general body health. Cordyceps has a broad range of pharmacological and biological actions on the liver, kidneys, heart, and immune system. One of the known pharmacological effects is its anti-oxidation activity. Cordyceps sinensis, a well-known and valued traditional Chinese medicine, is also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm summer grass) in Chinese.
Cordyceps Benefits

Helps regulate cholesterol levels. Various formal studies demonstrated that administration of Cordyceps Sinensis extract helps t regulated cholesterol level.

Stimulates the immune system. Cordyceps Sinensis Extract helps in boosting the immune system. It protects the body from infections. It enhances the defence mechanism in the body.

Alleviates the symptoms of various respiratory illnesses. Cordyceps Sinensis extract is the most effective with respiratory illnesses.

Increases energy level. In ancient China Cordyceps Sinensis has initially been used as a energy tonic. Cordyceps increases the cellular ATP level and oxygen utilization, which leads to a real increase in actual energy that is available for use.

Regulates blood pressure. The research has shown that administration of Cordyceps can help with regulating blood pressure and blood supply.

Regulates kidney and liver function.

Dr. Oz Recommendation / Directions

Take 3 grams per day spreadout through the day,

By
Jef Moriarty

Agaricus blazei

6 Anti-Inflammatory Mushrooms that Boost Your Immune System

Mushrooms are rich sources of disease-fighting compounds. Here are some you can capitalize on to boost your immunity and stay strong

Men started to consume mushrooms as food and medicine more than 2,000 years ago. Besides being a potent anti-inflammatory food, we know that many of the fungi we use today contained active compounds that have anti-cancer, anti-hypertensive, blood sugar-lowering, and other potentially valuable therapeutic properties.

Edible mushrooms are also great sources of proteins, antioxidants, minerals, fibers and trace elements that are comparable to some leafy greens. But unlike other produce, fungi require much lesser water, soil and space to mass cultivate.

Not convinced? Below are highlights of some fascinating medicinal mushrooms to open your eyes to the kingdom of fungi!

Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum)

Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) Why this Medicinal Mushroom?
Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum, or Lingzhi in Chinese) has been revered as the mushroom of immortality in many parts of Asia for centuries. Ancient people used it to enhance qi (life force), sharpen memory, calm the mind, and promote longevity. This kidney-shaped mushroom comes in a few different colors — green, purple, red, yellow and black — but red reishi is the most commonly used.

Health Benefits of Reishi:
Laboratory tests revealed that bioactive compounds derived from reishi have anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging and immuno-modulatory properties. Several reishi-derived substances are also antibacterial and anti-viral, exerting direct inhibitory actions against human herpes viruses, influenza virus, vesicular stomatitis as well as HIV in the lab.

What’s interesting to note is that polysaccharides from reishi and other medicinal mushrooms, do not kill viruses and cancer cells directly. Instead they activate the body’s own immune cells to attack harmful cells (an action termed as immuno-modulation), thereby increasing the body’s defense against infections and cancer.

Reishi also contains ganoderic acid which could confer protective effects on the liver, and other yet-to-be-identified components that help to reduce radiation-induced damages and side effects caused by chemotherapy.

How to Get and Use Reishi:
Wild reishi mushrooms are rare, and when available, are costly. Thankfully, reishi mushroom has been successfully cultivated which helps to bring its prices down. Due to its bitter taste, reishi is seldom used in cuisines. It’s more commonly used in dried form as Chinese medicine, or in convenient reishi extract capsules which do not require lengthy preparation.

Caterpillar Fungus (Cordyceps Sinensis)

Caterpillar Fungus (Cordyceps Sinensis)Why this Medicinal Mushroom?
Unlike other fungi which grow in soil or on trees, caterpillar fungus grows out of the body of an underground moth larva. So the complete fungus actually consists of a dried caterpillar with the fruiting body of the mushroom protruding from its head. Caterpillar fungus is known by many names: Dong Chong Xia Cao (which literally means winter worm, summer grass in Chinese), Cordyceps sinensis, or more accurately, Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

Health Benefits of Cordyceps Sinensis:
Caterpillar fungus is a highly valued medicinal ‘mushroom’ in traditional Chinese and Tibetan medicine, though it is strictly speaking not a mushroom. It’s prescribed to “replenish the kidney and soothe the lung, and for the treatment of fatigue.” Traditional Chinese physicians use it to treat a broad range of conditions, including night sweating, sexual dysfunction, high blood sugar, respiratory disease, kidney dysfunction, irregular heartbeat and other heart and liver disease. (Source)

Several preliminary data also suggested that extracts of Cordyceps sinensis could be useful against cancerous tumor, chemical-induced kidney damages, diabetes, inflammation, radiation-induced bone marrow and intestinal injuries, high blood cholesterol, and oxidative damage. In addition, it may also help to boost exercise endurance, increase energy levels and even lift depressive moods. In Taiwan and China, Cordyceps sinensis is used to stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells and to reduce kidney transplant complications.

How to Get and Use Cordyceps Sinensis:
Wild Cordyceps sinensis, consisting of the whole caterpillar and the attached fruiting body, cannot be grown artificially the way we can grow other medicinal mushrooms. That’s why the price of wild-harvested Cordyceps sinensis is prohibitively high and continues to go up.

Fortunately, we can fall back on cultivated Cordyceps sinensis which is mainly sold as cordyceps dietary supplement rather than as a form of food. Although cultured cordyceps fungi are reproduced without the use of any larva as host, they appear to have similar potency as wild-harvested ones according to this study as well as most of the research hyperlinked here.

Bamboo Fungus (Phallus Indusiatus)

Bamboo Fungus (Phallus Indusiatus) Why this Medicinal Mushroom?
Bamboo fungus (Phallus indusiatus) is a tropical mushroom belonging to the stinkhorn family that sports a bell-shaped cap and a long, elaborate net-like skirt.

Also called veiled lady mushroom, Zhu Sun or Dictyophora indusiata, it contains seven essential amino acids and 12 metallic ions, and is rich in vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, calcium and phosphate.

Health Benefits of Bamboo Fungus:
Early studies found that it may help to reduce low-density lipoprotein (‘bad’ chlesterol) and excessive acid in the body fluids, while increasing high-density lipoprotein (‘good’ cholesterol) and overall immunity. (Source)

Research also found that bamboo fungus shares some of the therapeutic properties as other medicinal mushrooms, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammation, anti-hyperglycemic and antimicrobial.

How to Get and Use Bamboo Fungus:
Bamboo fungus used to be a delicacy prized by the Chinese. Before mass cultivation of the fungus is possible, it used to occur only in the wild and thus, is hard to come by.

But now, dried cultivated bamboo fungus can easily be found in many Asian stores. To use it, simply soak it in water until it’s soft and then wash it thoroughly to remove grit and dirt.

By itself, bamboo fungus is tasteless but has an almost crunchy and tender texture. Its long, sponge-like stalk (stipe to be exact) means it can readily soaks up any flavoring or gravy that you dip it in, making the fungus a versatile ingredient to use. The Chinese also believe that adding Zhu Sun in their cooking can help to prevent food from spoiling easily.

To date, capsule or powder form of phallus indusiatus is not common.

Maitake (Grifola Frondosa)

Maitake (Grifola Frondosa) Why this Medicinal Mushroom?
Maitake (Grifola frondosa, or hen of the woods) is a culinary as well as medicinal mushroom widely used in Japan and increasingly, in other parts of the world. Literally called ‘dancing mushroom’, maitake grows in clusters and can grow to a large size, reaching 20 inches in diameter and weighing up to 100 pounds.

Health Benefits of Maitake:
A bioactive extract derived from maitake’s beta-glucan known as maitake D-fraction has been a subject of many research studies. The interest comes mainly from the extract’s ability to modulate the immune system and inhibit tumor cell growth.

Several improved maitake extracts were later developed. One of them, maitake MD-fraction, has reportedly received positive results in the treatment of a few cases of leukemia, liver and lung cancer.

How to Get and Use Maitake:
Fresh, and sometimes dried, maitake can be bought from large supermarkets and Asian stores.

But if the idea of eating fungi every day is hard to stomach, there is always maitake capsules to make the swallowing easier.

Almond Mushroom (Agaricus Subrufescens)

Almond Mushroom (Agaricus Subrufescens) Why this Medicinal Mushroom?
Almond mushroom (Agaricus Subrufescens) is a famous fungus with a big identity crisis. According to Wikipedia, several popular fungi and their derivatives that were marketed under the names like Agaricus blazei murrill and Agaricus brasiliensis in the last few decades should really have been Agaricus subrufescens instead.

Health Benefits of Almond Mushroom:
Almond mushroom has attracted the attention of scientists and consumers alike due to its potential anti-cancer, immuno-regulating, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects. Based on a 2005 survey, it was reportedly the most popular complementary and alternative medicine used by cancer patients in Japan.

How to Get and Use Almond Mushroom:
Fresh and dried Agaricus subrufescens are available in well-stocked supermarkets and Asian stores. The fresh mushroom has a delicate almond-like aroma and taste, while the dried version acquired a stronger fragrance and a chewier texture.

However, note that mushrooms from the Agaricus family, including Agaricus subrufescens, do contain a tiny amount of natural occurring carcinogen agaritine. Cooking usually destroys most of the agaritine in the mushroom and should not be a concern. But if you’re planning to take raw, powder form of the fungus for long-term, choose one that has agaritine removed.

Lion’s Mane (Hericium Erinaceus)

Lion’s Mane (Hericium Erinaceus)Why this Medicinal Mushroom?
Also known as monkey’s head mushroom, lion’s mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) is a unique looking fungus that has hair-like ‘teeth’ and some serious brain-boosting compounds.

Health Benefits of Lion’s Mane:
Other than enhancing the immune system and zapping cancer cells like other medicinal fungi, extract of yamabushitake (the Japanese name for lion’s mane mushroom) appears to have some beneficial effects on brain functions and autonomic nervous system.

A research conducted in Japan found that subjects who took cookies containing yamabushitake powder for four weeks were less depressed and anxious than those who took placebo cookies. An animal test also showed that Hericium erinaceus extract slowed cognitive impairment in mice which had chemically-induced dementia, while an in vitro experiment found it stimulated nerve growth factor (NGF). Inadequate NGF is believed to play a role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease.

In addition, lion’s mane extract may also improve lipid metabolism, cut blood lipid levels, reduce cell mutation and protect nerve tissue according to some preliminary reports.

How to Get and Use Lion’s Mane:
Like the bamboo fungus, monkey’s head mushroom used to be one of the eight fungus delicacies enjoyed by the ancient Chinese. Nowadays, it’s still a popular choice for important Chinese dinners.

Dried monkey’s head mushrooms are more common than fresh ones, and they can often be found in Asian specialty stores.

Extracts of Hericium erinaceus can also be found at the click of the mouse and in brick-and-mortar health stores.

Source:

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